Analisis Neraca Air pada Pengelolaan Air dalam System of Rice Intensification-Organik (SRI-Organik) di Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Chusnul Arif, Budi Indra Setiawan, Septian Fauzi Dwi Saputra, Masaru Mizoguchi
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Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa efektifitas irigasi berselang dengan neraca air pada lahan SRI dengan penerapan pupuk organik. Eksperimen dilakukan di Desa Gabus Wetan, Kab. Indramayu, Jawa Barat dari 17 November 2016 sampai 1 Maret 2017. Sensor parameter cuaca dan tanah dipasang di lahan untuk mendapatkan data harian kondisi lapang termasuk pertumbuhan tanaman. Data cuaca seperti hujan, suhu udara, kelembaban udara relatif, dan kecepatan angin dan kedalaman muka air diukur secara otomatis setiap 60 menit. Analisis neraca air dilakukan dengan kesalahan (error) yang rendah  (1,00%) dimana jumlah air masuk melalui hujan dan irigasi sebesar 560 mm dan 865 mm, sedangkan jumlah air keluar melalui evapotranspirasi tanaman, perkolasi, dan limpasan berturut turut sebanyak 430, 306 dan 675 mm. Perbandingan dengan sistem pertanian konvensional dengan irigasi tergenang, menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas air dari SRI organik berturut turut 30% dan 27% lebih tinggi untuk produktivitas air berdasarkan jumlah air masuk dan evapotranspirasi. SRI organik juga memproduksi 33% produksi lebih tinggi dari sistem pertanian konvensional di lokasi yang sama. Kunci keberhasilan irigasi berselang adalah dengan menjaga tinggi muka air dipermukaan tanah (macak-macak) pada fase vegetatif dan generatif.  Oleh sebab itu, cara ini merupakan alternatif pilihan bagi petani ketika sumber daya air berkurang karena perubahan iklim. Diseminasi hasil direkomendasikan melalui program pelatihan dan pendampingan bagi petani.


Kata Kunci


SRI organik; pengelolaan air; neraca air; produktivitas; sistem monitoring

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Referensi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31028/ji.v14.i1.17-24

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